negotiations) commit themselves to binding targets for GHG emissions. China was not a member of the group but an associate. Archived from the original on This document can also be downloaded as a PDF file permanent dead link World Bank (2010). A b unfccc 2011,. . 106 :14 In particular, PaMs were strengthened after 2000, helping to enhance energy efficiency and develop renewable energy sources.
The conditions of the Kyoto Protocol consist of mandatory targets on greenhouse gas emissions for the world's leading economies. These cost estimates were viewed as being based on much evidence and high agreement in the literature. 156 At the Doha meeting of the parties to the unfccc on 8 December 2012, the European Union chief climate negotiator, Artur Runge-Metzger, pledged to extend the treaty, binding on the 27 European Member States, up to the year 2020 pending an internal ratification procedure. The Framework Convention and its Protocol include provisions for future policy actions to be taken. (2001 "The Seven Myths of Kyoto" (PDF Climate Policy, 1 (2 archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2011 IEA (2011 CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion: Highlights (2011 edition) (PDF Paris, France: International Energy Agency (IEA) IEA (2012 CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion: Highlights. "What is the Kyoto Protocol".