diversity by conducting psychological experiments on members of different cultures and subcultures. Most European Americans shared the intuition that Bob does not know that Jill drives an American car, but the majority of East and South Asians had the opposite intuition. This suggests that concepts are culturally influenced, and that philosophical theories based on concepts may reflect the attitudes of a cultural group, rather than universally shared understanding of the target domain. Genes produce traits (or phenotypes which impact reproductive success, and thereby impact which genes will be copied into the next generation. We do all of these things with high prestige individuals, and this tendency goes beyond our bias to copy people who are skilled in domains that we are trying to master. In light of such cultural variation, some argue that emotions are socially constructed (Averill, 1980; Harr, 1986; Armon-Jones, 1989; also see the entry naturalistic approaches to social construction.) Others resist this idea, arguing that emotions are innate biological programs, shared across the species despite differences. For example, incidence and symptoms of depression may increase as a consequence of public discourse about depression (Ryder., 2008; see also Murphy, 2006). Geertz's thick descriptions may seem to move from the external focus of earlier approaches into a more psychological arena, but he does not take interpretation to centrally involve psychological testing.
Talmy, The, cognitive, culture, system
There is nothing more important, its proper implementation determining the destiny of nations, companies, charities, and families, than the creation of culture. Demands of reason (Kant intrinsic goods (consequentialism natural conditions for flourishing (Aristotle ideal observers (Smith and divine commands have all been explored as sources of absolute values. Boyer (2001) has applied this idea to the spread of religious beliefs. Emotions Emotions are a fundamental feature of human psychology.
Evolutionary psychologists emphasize the biological contributions to variation, dual-inheritance theorists emphasize bio-cultural interactions, and their critics suggest that the human capacity for cultural transmission reduces the import of biology. Studies on color perception and color comparison suggest that the effects are not limited to memory, and Boroditsky's study of gendered pronouns suggest that language can have an enduring impact on how we think about familiar categories. Following Triandis, we can define more precisely as follows: Collectivism: a social pattern in which individuals construe themselves as parts of collectives and are primarily motivated by duties to those collectives Individualism: a social pattern in which individuals see themselves as independent of collectives and. Sapir's student, Benjamin Whorf (1956 speculated that languages encode fundamentally different logics, which become so habitual to language users that they seem natural, resulting in fundamentally different ways of understanding the world. There are also cultural difference in gestures used to express anger, such as the middle finger in North America or the double finger salute in Britain. This, I believe, is one of the biggest leadership mistakes. Great apes may also be less innovative than humans, and this may stem from their limited capacity to understand causal relations (Povinelli 2000 or to plan for the distant future. Some have written of a, cognitive Culture, referring to the idea in our heads of culture and social relationships. If a model obtains fruit from a plant, an observer capable of copying ends may recognize that the plant bears fruit and try to obtain that fruit as a result of having seen what the model achieved. The point is not that all collectivist cultures are alike. New expressions may also be cultivated culturally. If so, research on the cognitive science of culture has important implications for philosophical practice.