20th century, for it altered the quality of industrial and social organization. With an Internet-enabled smartphone, a customer might, for example, check for nearby restaurants using its built-in access to the Global Positioning System (GPS check a map on the Web for directions to the restaurant, and then call for a reservation, all while en route. Fifth, new optical devices such as zoom lenses increased the power of cameras and prompted corresponding improvements in the quality of film available to the cinema and television. 20 After two years in political limbo (but with work on nuclear power and bomb manufacture continuing apace) the Manhattan Project became a permanent arm of the government as the Atomic Energy Commission. 23 Geosciences and astrophysics edit The history of earth science and the history of astrophysics were also closely tied to military purposes and funding throughout the Cold War. Materials The space age spawned important new materials and uncovered new uses for old materials. Nevertheless, even after the invention of the microprocessor, few could imagine a market for personal computers. In turn, critics of the distortionist thesis, beginning with Daniel Kevles, deny that the military "seduced American physicists from, so to speak, a 'true basic physics'." 32 Kevles, as well as Geiger, instead view the effects of military funding relative to such funding simply being. The technique was particularly applicable in bridge building.
Computer : A, history of the Information Machine (The
Colossus and eniac had used plugboards, which had the advantage of enabling the instructions to be read in electronically, rather than by much slower mechanical card readers, but it also had the disadvantage of making these first-generation machines very hard to program. The following section, Developments during World War II, examines the development during the 1940s of the first fully functional digital computers. It could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and, with some more elaborate user involvement, division.
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The Long History of Printing Press
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At first these portables looked like sewing machines and weighed in excess of 20 pounds (9 kg). Only in its final stages did even this program become a matter of technology, when the problems of building large reactors and handling radioactive materials had to be solved. Pascals, Leibnizs, and Morlands devices were curiosities, but with the Industrial mass Media and Mass Social Theory Revolution of the 18th century came a widespread need to perform repetitive operations efficiently. Thus, in this crucial event of the mid-20th century, the convergence of science, technology, economics, and politics finally took place. German rocketry was driven by the pursuit of Wunderwaffen, resulting in the V-2 ballistic missile ; the technology as well as the personal expertise of the German rocketry community was absorbed by the.S. Automatic translation from pure mathematics or some other high-level language to machine language was therefore necessary before computers would be useful to a broader class of users. This problem was solved by the development of a nickel-chromium alloy, and, with the gradual solution of the other problems, work went on in both Germany and Britain to seize a military advantage by applying the jet engine to combat aircraft. Calculators became available as a tool of commerce in 1820 ( see the earlier section Digital calculators and in 1874 the Remington Arms Company, Inc., sold the first commercially viable typewriter.
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