orientation only: New Hampshire, New York and Wisconsin. This provision has been criticized for "equating organized political protest with organized violence". 37 Though sexual orientation and gender identity are also excluded from this law, they are included in a more recent Federal hate-crime law, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd,. Johnson immediately took up the cause. "Report Alleges Bias by a Real Estate Giant". 13 14 On April 5, Johnson wrote a letter to the United States House of Representatives urging passage of the Fair Housing Act. Although several legal measures have been taken to protect all kinds of people against housing discrimination in the.S., still the most commonly targeted and largest victims are African-Americans. For example, in 1985 an interracial couple moved into an all-white neighborhood in Philadelphia. Despite the Fair Housing Act, which included cases like Gautreaux and Shannon which prohibited placing projects exclusively in black neighborhoods, the trend did not end. "History of Fair Housing" US Department of Housing and Urban Development Johnson, Lyndon pollution in China Baines.
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He said he based his ruling in part on the city's failure to prove that the area had a higher crime rate and lower property values than other parts of the city. 5 Contents Political context edit One impetus for the law's passage came from the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement. "Hate Crime Laws Don't Prevent Violence Against lgbt People". Virginia segregationist introduced an amendment to ban employment discrimination against women. Massey devised a segregation index to measure the degree of segregation of African-Americans and whites according to income levels. The new regulations ensure that the Department's core housing programs are open to all eligible persons, regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. Retrieved November 26, 2013. Having broken the filibuster, the Senate voted 73-27 in favor of the bill, and Johnson signed it into law on July 2, 1964. 9 Two developments revived the bill. According to one Federal Reserve Board study, among higher income applicants, the denial rates were as follows: citation needed African-Americans:.4 Latinos:.8 Asians:.2 Whites:.5 Housing projects have also come under fire by researchers and NGOs alike. Affluent middle- and upper-middle-class white areas were outlined in green on a map, meaning that financial services were clear to be rendered and these areas were desirable for investment. Massey, Douglass, 1993.109.