what has created the character of citizen as between himself and the United States. It will, if adopted by the States, forever disable every one of them from passing laws trenching upon those fundamental rights and privileges which pertain to citizens of the United States, and to all person who may happen to be within their jurisdiction. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. Amendment Text, annotations, section. Civil Rights Cases decisions, overturned the public accommodation sections of the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and declared that the 14th Amendment did not give Congress the power to dictate the affairs of private businesses. Ullman (1961 dissenting judge John Marshall Harlan II adopted a broad view of the "liberty" protected by the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process clause: The full scope of the liberty guaranteed by the Due Process Clause cannot be found in or limited by the precise terms. The amendment limits the actions of all state and local officials, including those acting on behalf of such an official.
"In historic decision, Court strikes down state bans on same-sex marriage: In Plain English". 88 However, the Court did uphold some economic regulation, such as state Prohibition laws ( Mugler. Dismissed it as "the usual last resort of constitutional arguments." 137 The Court held to the "separate but equal" doctrine for more than fifty years, despite numerous cases in which the Court itself had found that the segregated facilities provided by the states were almost. Gore (2000) regarding the 2000 presidential election, and, obergefell. Retrieved July 4, 2013. Texas (1954 the Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment protects those beyond the racial classes of white or " Negro " and extends to other racial and ethnic groups, such as Mexican Americans in this case. The four clauses of the first section of the 14th Amendment are the most important because they have repeatedly been cited in major. Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of Rights: The Incorporation Theory (American Constitutional and Legal History Series). West Virginia that the Equal Protection Clause was The Clause mandates that individuals in similar situations be treated equally by the law.
The First Amendment and Hate Speech, The 15th Amendment: The Voting Rights of The Blacks, The Second Amendment Loop Hole,