explosion. 39 The most important physical removal mechanism is " rainout both during the "fire-driven convective column" phase, which produces " black rain " near the fire site, and rainout after the convective plume's dispersal, where the smoke is no longer concentrated and thus "wet removal". 243 244 This hypothesis is suggested as a means to explain the severity of the CretaceousPaleogene extinction event, as the earth impact of an asteroid about 10 km wide which precipitated the extinction is not regarded as sufficiently energetic to have caused the level. In the Alan Robock. This was done in an effort to convey to his readers that contrary to the popular opinion at the time, in the conclusion of these two climate scientists, "on scientific grounds the global apocalyptic conclusions of the initial nuclear winter hypothesis can now be relegated. 193 194 In 2010 Alan Robock was summoned to Cuba to help Castro promote his new view that nuclear war would bring about Armageddon. There is a greater battle mankind must fight than against each other.
Worldwide, effects of Nuclear, war
69 Dörries, Matthias (2011). Roane a the things they carried,basics b "Comment" (PDF). Calculations show large heating (up to 80 C) at the top of the smoke layer at about 10 km; this implies a substantial modification of the circulation there and the possibility of advection of the cloud into low latitudes and the southern hemisphere. 91 101 Hobbs compared the papers' assumed "emission factor" or soot generating efficiency from ignited oil pools and found, upon comparing to measured values from oil pools at Kuwait, which were the greatest soot producers, the emissions of soot assumed in the nuclear winter calculations. A full simulation of stratospheric chemistry, along with additional laboratory studies, would be needed to evaluate the importance of these processes. 238 Similar climatic effects to "nuclear winter" followed historical supervolcano eruptions, which plumed sulfate aerosols high into the stratosphere, with this being known as a volcanic winter. Nuclear Winter and Its Implications Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, October 2 and 3, 1985. New York: Pantheon Books. The optical depth of the smoke can be much greater than unity.
The Effects of War in The Sun Also Rises