International political economy (IPE) an interdisciplinary field comprising approaches to the actions facial expressions of various actors. Likewise, sociologists and some political scientists also are interested in the extent to which policies are generated primarily from above by elites or from below by the public. Maier suggests that a political economy approach "interrogates economic doctrines to disclose their sociological and political premises. Political economy thus can be understood as the study of how a countrythe publics householdis managed or governed, taking into account both political and economic factors.
Whereas political economy, which was rooted in moral philosophy, was from the beginning very much a normative field of study, economics sought to become objective and value-free. Political Economy, Athabasca University. Rational-choice theorists, for example, analyze individual behaviour and even the policies of states in terms of maximizing benefits and minimizing costs, and public-choice theorists focus on how policy choices are shaped or constrained by incentives built into the routines of public and private organizations. For many Marxists (and contemporary adherents of varying strands of Marxist thought government efforts to manage different parts of the economy are presumed to favour the moral order of bourgeois values.
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"The Political Economy of Benefits and Costs: A Neoclassical Approach to the Life Story of Jane Addams Distributive Politics Journal of Political Economy, 89(4. "The political economy of fascism: Myth or reality, or myth and reality?" Archived at the Wayback Machine., New Political Economy, 11(2. Mercantilists are closely related to realists, focusing on competing interests and capabilities of nation-states in a competitive struggle to achieve power and security. "The Political Economy of Growth: A Critical Survey of the Recent Literature World Bank Economic Review, 8(3. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life.