appeared that the Qing dynasty could modernise and regain its former strength. Both movements were rooted in the concept of self-strengthening in order to withstand the demands and aggression of the West. The Self-strengthening Movement (1860-1894) was also named "Yang-Wu Yun-Tung" by the Marxist historians. The Imperial Court was divided between Conservatives, led by Cixi, and Progressives led by Prince Gong. In a sense, they operated like the Warlords of the 20th century, but unlike them, were loyal to the Qing. As mentioned before, the Chinese were extremely traditional and therefore. Being influenced by their confidence in Confucianism, the Chinese thought that the Chinese state and society was perfect and there should not be reform. From On the Adoption of Western Learning by Feng Guifen 9, the Role of Zeng Guofan Zeng Guofan was the most influential and powerful reformer, responsible for defeating the Taiping Rebels.
This was the T'ung-chih Restoration." By Historian Mary Wright Source B: "That the Qing managed to survive both domestic and international attacks is due largely to the policy and leadership changes known as the Qing Restoration." By Historian John Fairbank 32 Did we meet our learning. 8 to 10 marks for a fairly complete account of the careers of the three officials or for an incomplete account which recognises some of the weaknesses of the regime. 11 to 13 marks for a simple analysis in which the weaknesses of the regime are illustrated by reference to the careers of at least two of the three officials. This statement truly shows the attitudes and feelings of the people at the time. (20 marks) The question requires candidates to analyse economic and military modernization, as well as the degree of social and political change in both China and Japan.