temporary official institutions established to examine patterns of specified human rights abuses over a given time period (Hayner 2010). Ubuntu is frequently summarized through the Zulu saying, umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu, which can be translated as a person depends on others to be a person (see, for example, Matolino and Kwindingwi 2013, who are more critical of the relevance of ubuntu in post-apartheid South Africa). Criminal trials and punishment are also claimed to make a crucial contribution to societal reconciliation by reaffirming the normative standards that should govern interaction. In the political context, the cessation of violence, the prevention of future violence, and the attainment of democracy are some values that may be promoted. In political cases, the roles of victim and perpetrator are often not clear-cut or agreed upon. Punishment can signify or cultivate a commitment to the rule the Life of Cardinal Joseph Bernardin of law, as well as the faith in law and decency among officials upon which the rule of law depends (C. Some theorists offer accounts of reconciliation designed to cover the repair of a wide range of interpersonal and political relationships, including those among friends, co-workers, and fellow citizens (Govier 2006). The process of repairing relationships is most obviously valuable and important because of the other goods it enables individuals and communities to achieve.
A still broader use of the term includes material transfers that have a more purely symbolic function. Its mandate, and the interpretation of it, resulted in what some considered a less than comprehensive overview of crimes of the past. Another view, which emerges specifically out of the literature on political reconciliation, insists that reconciliation cannot be defined pre-politically (Schaap 2005). Theorists who adopt this position regard it as a mistake to equate justice with retributive justice. Policies of forgetting in the name of reconciliation have been pursued by a number of states in recent decades, including Cambodia, whose prime minister advised his fellow citizens in 1999 to dig a hole and bury the past, while granting amnesty from prosecution to Khmer.